Dr. Heike Wex

Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research

Permoserstraße 15

04318 Leipzig

Phone: +49 341 2717-7146

Room: 0.10 (Geb. 23.3)

Mail: wex@tropos.de  


ResearcherID : X-5882-2018

ORCID-ID : 0000-0003-2129-9323






Atmospheric Microphysics




[picture by Martin Neuhof for his project Herzkampf ]


Research Interests:

experimental examination and theoretical description of aerosol-cloud-interactions:

- hygroscopic growth up to high relative humidities (>99% RH)

- activation of particles to cloud droplets

- heterogenous ice nucleation processes

- atmospheric aerosol particles as nuclei for cloud droplets (CCN) and primary ice (INP)


additional interests:

climate change prevention, activ with Scientists for Future, Leipzig - because climate change goes on



since 2021: Vice-President of ICCP (International Commission on Clouds and Precipitation)


(more on current projects, completed projects and my curriculum vitae below the publications)





Lacher, L., et al. (2024), The Puy de Dôme ICe Nucleation Intercomparison Campaign (PICNIC): Comparison between online and offline methods in ambient air, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 24, 2651–2678, doi:10.5194/acp-24-2651-2024.



Gong, X., Y. Wang, H. Xie, J. Zhang, L. Zheng, R. Wood, F. Stratmann, H. Wex, X. Liu, and J. Wang (2023), Maximum supersaturation in the marine boundary layer clouds over the North Atlantic, AGU Advances, 4(e2022AV000855), doi:10.1029/2022AV000855.

Grawe, S., C. Jentzsch, J. Schaefer, H. Wex, and F. Stratmann (2023), Next-generation ice nucleating particle sampling on aircraft: Characterization of the High-volume flow aERosol particle filter sAmpler (HERA), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4551–4570, doi:10.5194/amt-16-4551-2023.

Rahlff, J., S. P. Esser, J. Plewka, M. E. Heinrichs, A. Soares, C. Scarchilli, P. Grigioni, H. Wex, H.-A. Giebel, and A. J. Probst (2023), Marine viruses disperse bidirectionally along the natural water cycle, Nat. Commun., 14(6354), doi:10.1038/s41467-023-42125-5.

Sze, K. C. H., H. Wex, M. Hartmann, H. Skov, A. Massling, D. Villanueva, and F. Stratmann (2023), Ice Nucleating Particles in Northern Greenland: Annual cycles, biological contribution and parameterizations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4741–4761, doi:10.5194/acp-23-4741-2023.

Wendisch, M. et al. (2023), Atmospheric and surface processes, and feedback mechanisms determining Arctic Amplification: A review of first results and prospects of the (AC)³ project, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0218.1.



Dall'Osto, M., A. Sotomayor-Garcia, M. Cabrera-Brufau, E. Berdalet, D. Vaqué, S. Zeppenfeld, M. van Pinxteren, H. Herrmann, H. Wex, M. Rinaldi, M. Paglione, D. Beddows, R. Harrison, C. Avila, R. P. Martin-Martin, J. Park, and B. Andrés (2022), Leaching material from Antarctic seaweeds and penguin guano affects cloud-relevant aerosol production, Sci. Total Environ., STOTEN-D-21-29907R1, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154772.

Dall'Osto, M., D. Vaque, A. Sotomayor-Garcia, M. Cabrera Brufau, M. Estrada, T. Buchaca, M. Soler, S. Nunes, S. Zeppenfeld, M. van Pinxteren, H. Herrmann, H. Wex, M. Rinaldi, M. Paglione, D. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, and E. Berdalet (2022), Sea ice microbiota in the Antarctic Peninsula modulates cloud-relevant sea spray aerosol production, Front. Mar. Sci., 9, Article 827061, doi:10.3389/fmars.2022.827061.

Gong, X., H. Wex, T. Müller, S. Henning, J. Voigtländer, A. Wiedensohler, and F. Stratmann (2022), Understanding aerosol microphysical properties from 10 years of data collected at Cabo Verde based on an unsupervised machine learning classification, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5175–5194, doi:10.5194/acp-22-5175-2022.

Gong, X., M. Radenz, H. Wex, P. Seifert, F. Ataei, S. Henning, H. Baars, B. Barja, A. Ansmann, and F. Stratmann (2022), Significant continental source of ice-nucleating particles at the tip of Chile’s southernmost Patagonia region, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10505–10525, doi:10.5194/acp-22-10505-2022.

Hartmann, S., M. L. Ling, L. S. A. Dreyer, A. Zipori, K. Finster, S. Grawe, L. Z. Jensen, S. Borck, N. Reicher, T. Drace, D. Niedermeier, N. C. Jones, S. V. Hoffmann, H. Wex, Y. Rudich, T. Boesen, and T. Santl-Temkiv (2022), Structure and protein-protein interactions of ice nucleation proteins drive their activity, Front. Microbiol., 13, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2022.872306.

van Pinxteren, M., T.-B. Robinson, S. Zeppenfeld, X. Gong, E. Bahlmann, K. W. Fomba, N. Triesch, F. Stratmann, O. Wurl, A. Engel, H. Wex, and H. Herrmann (2022), High number concentrations of transparent exopolymer particles in ambient aerosol particles and cloud water – A case study at the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5725–5742, doi:10.5194/acp-22-5725-2022.



Chen, J., Z. Wu, X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Qiu, T. Zong, H. Chen, B. Wang, P. Lin, W. Liu, S. Guo, M. Yao, L. Zeng, H. Wex, X. Liu, M. Hu, and S.-M. Li (2021), Atmospheric humic-like substances (HULIS) act as ice-nucleating particles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48, doi:10.1029/2021GL092443.

Hartmann, M., X. Gong, S. Kecorius, M. van Pinxteren, T. Vogl, A. Welti, H. Wex, S. Zeppenfeld, H. Herrmann, A. Wiedensohler, and F. Stratmann (2021), Terrestrial or marine? – Indications towards the origin of Ice Nucleating Particles during melt season in the European Arctic up to 83.7°N, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11613-11636, doi:10.5194/acp-21-11613-2021.

Triesch, N., M. van Pinxteren, S. Frka, C. Stolle, T. Spranger, E. H. Hoffmann, X. Gong, H. Wex, D. Schulz-Bull, B. Gašparović, and H. Herrmann (2021), Concerted measurements of lipids in seawater and on submicron aerosol particles at the Cape Verde Islands: biogenic sources, selective transfer and high enrichments Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4267-4283, doi:10.5194/acp-21-4267-2021.

van Pinxteren, M., Robinson, T.-B., Zeppenfeld, S., Gong, X., Bahlmann, E., Fomba, K. W., Triesch, N., Stratmann, F., Wurl, O., Engel, A., Wex, H., and Herrmann, H. (2021), High number concentrations of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in ambient aerosol particles and cloud water – A case study at the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Atmos. Chem. Phys, accepted.

Zeppenfeld, S., M. van Pinxteren, D. van Pinxteren, H. Wex, E. Berdalet, D. Vaqué, M. Dall’Osto, and H. Herrmann (2021), Aerosol marine primary carbohydrates and atmospheric transformation in the western Antarctic peninsula, ACS Earth Space Chem., 5, 1032-1047, doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.0c00351.



Clemen, H. C., Schneider, J., Klimach, T., Helleis, F., Köllner, F., Hünig, A., Rubach, F., Mertes, S., Wex, H., Stratmann, F., Welti, A., Kohl, R., Frank, F., and Borrmann, S. (2020), Optimizing the detection, ablation and ion extraction efficiency of a single particle laser ablation mass spectrometer for application in environments with low aerosol particle concentrations, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5923-5953, doi:10.5194/amt-13-5923-2020.

Gong, X., H. Wex, J. Voigtländer, K. W. Fomba, K. Weinhold, M. van Pinxteren, S. Henning, T. Müller, H. Herrmann, and F. Stratmann (2020), Characterization of aerosol particles at Cape Verde close to sea and cloud level heights-Part 1: particle number size distribution, cloud condensation nuclei and their origins, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1431–1449, doi: 10.5194/acp-20-1431-2020.

Gong, X., H. Wex, M. van Pinxteren, N. Triesch, K. W. Fomba, J. Lubitz, C. Stolle, B. Robinson, T. Müller, H. Herrmann, and F. Stratmann (2020), Characterization of aerosol particles at Cape Verde close to sea and cloud level heights - Part 2: ice nucleating particles in air, cloud and seawater, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1451-1468, doi:10.5194/acp-20-1451-2020.

Hartmann, M., K. Adachi, O. Eppers, C. Haas, A. Herber, R. Holzinger, A. Hünerbein, E. Jäkel, C. Jentzsch, M. van Pinxteren, S. Willmes, H. Wex, and F. Stratmann (2020), Wintertime airborne measurements of ice nucleating particles in the high Arctic: a hint to a marine, biogenic source for Ice Nucleating Particles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL087770, doi:10.1029/2020GL087770.

van Pinxteren, M., et al. (2020), Marine organic matter in the remote environment of the Cape Verde Islands – An introduction and overview to the MarParCloud campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6921-6951, doi:10.5194/acp-20-6921-2020.



Gong, X., H. Wex, T. Müller, A. Wiedensohler, K. Höhler, K. Kandler, N. Ma, B. Dietel, T. Schiebel, O. Möhler, and F. Stratmann (2019), Characterization of aerosol properties at Cyprus, focusing on cloud condensation nuclei and ice-nucleating particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10883-10900, doi:10.5194/acp-19-10883-2019.

Hartmann, M., T. Blunier, S. O. Brügger, J. Schmale, M. Schwikowski, A. Vogel, H. Wex, and F. Stratmann (2019), Variation of ice nucleating particles in the European Arctic over the last centuries, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, doi:10.1029/2019GL082311.

Herenz, P., H. Wex, A. Mangold, Q. Laffineur, I. V. Gorodetskaya, Z. L. Flemming, M. Panagi, and F. Stratmann (2019), CCN measurements at the Princess Elisabeth Antarctica Research Station during three austral summers, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 275-294, doi:10.5194/acp-19-275-2019.

Hiranuma, N., et al. (2019), A comprehensive characterization of ice nucleation by three different types of cellulose particles immersed in water, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4823-4849, doi:10.5194/acp-19-4823-2019.

Kecorius, S., T. Vogl, P. Paasonen, J. Lampilahti, D. Rothenberg, H. Wex, S. Zeppenfeld, M. van Pinxteren, M. Hartmann, S. Henning, X. Gong, A. Welti, M. Kulmala, F. Stratmann, H. Herrmann, and A. Wiedensohler (2019), New particle formation and its effect on CCN abundance in the summer Arctic: a case study in the Fram Strait and Barents Sea, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14339-14364, doi:10.5194/acp-19-14339-2019.

Lange, R., M. Dall’Osto, H. Wex, H. Skov, and A. Massling (2019), Large summer contribution of organic biogenic aerosols to Arctic cloud condensation nuclei, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, doi:10.1029/2019GL084142.

Šantl-Temkiv, T., R. Lange, D. Beddows, U. Rauter, S. Pilgaard, M. Dall’Osto, N. Gunde-Cimerman, A. Massling, and H. Wex (2019), Biogenic sources of Ice Nucleation Particles at the high arctic site Villum Research Station, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 10580-10590, doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b00991.

Wendisch, M., et al. (2019), The Arctic cloud puzzle: Using ACLOUD/PASCAL multi-platform observations to unravel the role of clouds and aerosol particles in Arctic Amplification, BAMS, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0072.1.

Wex, H., L. Huang, W. Zhang, H. Hung, R. Traversi, S. Becagli, R. J. Sheesley, C. E. Moffett, T. E. Barrett, R. Bossi, H. Skov, A. Hünerbein, J. Lubitz, M. Löffler, O. Linke, M. Hartmann, P. Herenz, and F. Stratmann (2019), Annual variability of ice nucleating particle concentrations at different Arctic locations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5293–5311, doi:10.5194/acp-19-5293-2019.



Chen, J., Z. Wu, S. Augustin-Bauditz, S. Grawe, M. Hartmann, X. Pei, Z. Liu, D. Ji, and H. Wex (2018), Ice nucleating particle concentrations unaffected by urban air pollution in Beijing, China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3523–3539, doi:10.5194/acp-18-3523-2018.

Grawe, S., S. Augustin-Bauditz, H.-C. Clemen, M. Ebert, S. Eriksen Hammer, J. Lubitz, N. Reicher, Y. Rudich, J. Schneider, R. Staacke, F. Stratmann, A. Welti, and H. Wex (2018), Coal fly ash: Linking immersion freezing behavior and physico-chemical particle properties, 13903–13923, doi:10.5194/acp-2018-583.

Herenz, P., H. Wex, S. Henning, T. B. Kristensen, F. Rubach, A. Roth, S. Borrmann, H. Bozem, H. Schulz, and F. Stratmann (2018), Measurements of aerosol and CCN properties in the Mackenzie River delta (Canadian Arctic) during Spring-Summer transition in May 2014, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4477–4496, doi:10.5194/acp-18-4477-2018.

Knackstedt, K. A., B. F. Moffett, S. Hartmann, H. Wex, T. C. Hill, E. D. Glasgo, L. A. Reitz, S. Augustin-Bauditz, B. F. N. Beall, G. S. Bullerjahn, J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, S. Grawe, J. Lubitz, and R. M. L. McKay (2018), A terrestrial origin for abundant riverine nanoscale ice-nucleating particles, Environ. Sci. Technol., 12358−12367, doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b03881. 

Kroflič, A., S. Frka, M. Simmel, H. Wex, and I. Grgić (2018), Size-resolved surface active substances of atmospheric aerosol: reconsideration of the impact on cloud droplet formation, Environ. Sci. Technol., 52 (16), 9179–9187, doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b02381.

Ling, M., H. Wex, S. Grawe, J. Jakobsson, J. Löndahl, S. Hartmann, K. Finster, T. Boesen, and T. Santl-Temkiv (2018), Effects of ice nucleation protein repeat number and oligomerization level on ice nucleation activity, J. Geophys. Res., 123, doi:10.1002/2017JD027307. 

Wendisch, M., et al. (2018), The Arctic cloud puzzle: Using ACLOUD/PASCAL multi-platform observations to unravel the role of clouds and aerosol particles in Arctic Amplification, BAMS, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0072.1



Burkert-Kohn, M., H. Wex, A. Welti, S. Hartmann, S. Grawe, L. Hellner, P. Herenz, J. D. Atkinson, F. Stratmann, and Z. A. Kanji (2017), Leipzig Ice Nucleation chamber Comparison (LINC): Inter-comparison of four online ice nucleation counters, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11683–11705, doi:10.5194/acp-17-11683-2017.

Coluzza, I., J. Creamean, M. J. Rossi, H. Wex, P. A. Alpert, V. Bianco, Y. Boose, C. Dellago, L. Felgitsch, J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, H. Herrmann, S. Jungblut, Z. A. Kanji, G. Menzl, B. Moffett, C. Moritz, A. Mutzel, U. Pöschel, M. Schauperl, J. Scheel, E. Stopelli, F. Stratmann, H. Grothe, and D. G. Schmale, III (2017), Perspectives on the future of ice nucleation research: Research needs and unanswered questions identified from two international workshops, Atmosphere, 8, doi:10.3390/atmos8080138.

Costa, A., J. Meyer, A. Afchine, A. Luebke, G. Günther, J. R. Dorsey, M. W. Gallagher, A. Ehrlich, M. Wendisch, D. Baumgardner, H. Wex, and M. Krämer (2017), Classification of Arctic, Mid-Latitude and Tropical Clouds in the Mixed-Phase Temperature Regime, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12219–12238, doi:10.5194/acp-17-12219-2017.

Cziczo, D. J., L. A. Ladino Moreno, Y. Boose, P. Kupiszewski, S. Lance, S. Mertes, and H. Wex (2017), Chapter 8: Measurements of ice nucleating particles and ice residuals, Meteor. Monogr., 58, doi:10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-16-0008.1. (in: Ice Formation and Evolution in Clouds and Precipitation: Measurement and Modeling Challenges)

Kanji, Z. A., L. A. Ladino, H. Wex, Y. Boose, D. Cziczo, M. Kohn, and M. Krämer (2017), Chapter 1: Heterogeneous ice nucleation, Meteor. Monogr., 58, doi:10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-16-0006.1. (in: Ice Formation and Evolution in Clouds and Precipitation: Measurement and Modeling Challenges)

Reddington, C. L., et al. (2017), The Global Aerosol Synthesis And Science Project (GASSP): Measurements and modelling to reduce uncertainty, BAMS, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00317.1.



Augustin-Bauditz, S., H. Wex, C. Denjean, S. Hartmann, J. Schneider, S. Schmidt, M. Ebert, and F. Stratmann (2016), Laboratory-generated mixtures of mineral dust particles with biological substances: characterization of the particle mixing state and immersion freezing behavior, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5531–5543, doi:10.5194/acp-16-5531-2016.

Garimella, S., et al.  (2016), The SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN): an instrument to investigate ice nucleation, Atmos. Meas. Tech, 9, 2781–2795, doi:10.5194/amt-9-2781-2016.

Grawe, S., S. Augustin-Bauditz, S. Hartmann, L. Hellner, J. B. C. Pettersson, A. Prager, F. Stratmann, and H. Wex (2016), The immersion freezing behavior of ash particles from wood and brown coal burning, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13911–13928, doi:10.5194/acp-16-13911-2016.

Hartmann, S., H. Wex, T. Clauss, S. Augustin-Bauditz, D. Niedermeier, M. Rösch, and F. Stratmann (2016), Immersion freezing of kaolinite - scaling with particle surface area, J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 263-278, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-15-0057.1.

Sahyoun, M., H. Wex, U. K. Gosewinkel, T. Santl Temkiv, N. W. Nielsen, K. Finster, J. H. Sorensen, F. Stratmann, and U. S. Korsholm (2016), On the usage of classical nucleation theory in quantification of the impact of bacterial INP on weather and climate, Atmos. Environ., 139, 230-240, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.034.

Wex, H., K. Dieckmann, G. C. Roberts, T. Conrath, M. A. Izaguirre, S. Hartmann, P. Herenz, M. Schäfer, F. Ditas, T. Schmeissner, S. Henning, B. Wehner, H. Siebert, and F. Stratmann (2016), Aerosol arriving on the Caribbean island of Barbados: Physical properties and origin, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14107–14130, doi:10.5194/acp-16-14107-2016.



Hiranuma, N., et al. (2015), A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of seventeen ice nucleation measurement techniques, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2489–2518, doi:10.5194/acp-15-2489-2015.

Niedermeier, D., S. Augustin-Bauditz, S. Hartmann, H. Wex, K. Ignatius, and F. Stratmann (2015), Can we define an asymptotic value for the ice active surface site density for heterogeneous ice nucleation?, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2014JD022814.

Pummer, B. G., C. Budke, S. Augustin-Bauditz, D. Niedermeier, L. Felgitsch, C. J. Kampf, R. G. Huber, K. R. Liedl, T. Loerting, T. Moschen, M. Schauperl, M. Tollinger, C. E. Morris, H. Wex, H. Grothe, U. Pöschl, T. Koop, and J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky (2015), Ice nucleation by water-soluble macromolecules, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4077–4091, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4077-2015. 

Šantl-Temkiv, T., M. Sahyoun, K. Finster, S. Hartmann, S. Augustin, F. Stratmann, H. Wex, T. Clauss, N. W. Nielsen, J.  H. Sørensen, U. Smith Korsholm, L. Y. Wick, and U. K. Gosewinkel (2015), Characterization of airborne ice-nucleation-active bacteria and bacterial fragments, Atmos. Environ., 109, 105-117, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.02.060.

Wex, H., S. Augustin-Bauditz, Y. Boose, C. Budke, J. Curtius, K. Diehl, A. Dreyer, F. Frank, S. Hartmann, N. Hiranuma, E. Jantsch, Z. A. Kanji, A. Kiselev, T. Koop, O. Moehler, D. Niedermeier, B. Nillius, M. Roesch, D. Rose, C. Schmidt, I. Steinke, and F. Stratmann (2015), Intercomparing different devices for the investigation of ice nucleating particles using Snomax as test substance, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1463–1485, doi:10.5194/acp-15-1463-2015.



Augustin-Bauditz, S., H. Wex, S. Kanter, M. Ebert, F. Stolz, A. Prager, D. Niedermeier, and F. Stratmann (2014), The immersion mode ice nucleation behavior of mineral dusts: A comparison of different pure and surface modified dusts, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL061317.

Henning, S., K. Dieckmann, K. Ignatius, M. Schäfer, P. Zedler, E. Harris, B. Sinha, D. van Pinxteren, S. Mertes, W. Birmili, M. Merkel, Z. Wu, A. Wiedensohler, H. Wex, H. Herrmann, and F. Stratmann (2014), Influence of cloud processing on CCN activation behaviour in the Thuringian Forest, Germany during HCCT-2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7859-7868, doi:10.5194/acp-14-7859-2014.

Niedermeier, D., B. Ervens, T. Clauss, J. Voigtländer, H. Wex, S. Hartmann, and F. Stratmann (2014), A computationally efficient description of heterogeneous freezing: A simplified version of the Soccer ball model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2013GL058684.

Riccobono, F., et al. (2014), Oxidation products of biogenic emissions contribute to nucleation of atmospheric particles, Science, 344, 717, doi:10.1126/science.1243527.

Werner, F., F. Ditas, H. Siebert, M. Simmel, B. Wehner, P. Pilewskie, T. Schmeissner, R. A. Shaw, S. Hartmann, H. Wex, G. C. Roberts, and M. Wendisch (2014), Twomey effect observed from collocated microphysical and remote sensing measurements over shallow cumulus, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 1534-1545, doi:10.1002/2013JD020131.

Wex, H., P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, S. Hartmann, M. Rösch, T. Clauss, L. Tomsche, D. Niedermeier, and F. Stratmann (2014), Kaolinite particles as ice nuclei: learning from the use of different kaolinite samples and different coatings, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5529-5546, doi:10.5194/acp-14-5529-2014.



Almeida, J., et al. (2013), Molecular understanding of sulphuric acid - amine particle nucleation in the atmosphere, Nature, 502, 359-363, doi:10.1038/nature12663.

Augustin, S., H. Wex, D. Niedermeier, B. Pummer, H. Grothe, S. Hartmann, L. Tomsche, T. Clauss, J. Voigtländer, K. Ignatius, and F. Stratmann (2013), Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10989-11003, doi:10.5194/acp-13-10989-2013.

Clauss, T., A. Kiselev, S. Hartmann, S. Augustin, S. Pfeifer, D. Niedermeier, H. Wex, and F. Stratmann (2013), Application of linear polarized light for the discrimination of frozen and liquid droplets in ice nucleation experiments, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1041-1052.

Hartmann, S., S. Augustin, T. Clauss, H. Wex, Šantl-Temkiv T., J. Voigtländer, D. Niedermeier, and F. Stratmann (2013), Immersion freezing of ice nucleating active protein complexes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5751-5766.

Keskinen, H., et al. (2013), Evolution of particle composition in CLOUD nucleation experiments, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5587-5600.

Siebert, H., et al. (2013), The fine-scale structure of the trade wind cumuli over Barbados - an introductionto the CARRIBA project, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10061-10077.



Kristensen, T. B., H. Wex, B. Nekat, J. K. Nojgaard, D. van Pinxteren, D. H. Lowenthal, L. R. Mazzoleni, K. Dieckmann, C. Bender Koch, T. F. Mentel, H. Herrmann, A. G. Hallar, F. Stratmann, and M. Bilde (2012), Hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of HULIS from different environments, J. Geophys. Res.,117, D22203, doi:10.1029/2012JG018249.

Tobo, Y., P. J. DeMott, M. Raddatz, D. Niedermeier, S. Hartmann, S. M. Kreidenweis, F. Stratmann, and H. Wex (2012), Impacts of chemical reactivity on ice nucleation of kaolinite particles: A case study of levoglucosan and sulfuric acid, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19803, doi:10.1029/2012GL053007.



Hartmann, S., D. Niedermeier, J. Voigtländer, T. Clauss, R. A. Shaw, H. Wex, A. Kiselev, and F. Stratmann (2011), The Leipzig Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS): operating principle and theoretical studies concerning homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1753-1767.

Kirkby, J., et al. (2011), Role of sulphuric acid, ammonia and galactic cosmic rays in atmospheric aerosol nucleation, Nature, 476, 429-433.

Niedermeier, D., R. A. Shaw, S. Hartmann, H. Wex, T. Clauss, J. Voigtländer, and F. Stratmann (2011), Heterogeneous ice nucleation: Exploring the transition from stochastic to singular freezing behavior, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8767-8775.

Niedermeier, D., S. Hartmann, T. Clauss, H. Wex, A. Kiselev, R. C. Sullivan, P. J. DeMott, M. D. Petters, P. Reitz, J. Schneider, E. Mikhailov, B. Sierau, O. Stetzer, B. Reimann, U. Bundke, R. A. Shaw, A. Buchholz, T. F. Mentel, and F. Stratmann (2011), Experimental study of the role of chemical and physical surface processing on the IN ability of mineral dust particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11131-11144.

Reitz, P., C. Spindler, T. F. Mentel, L. Poulain, H. Wex, K. Mildenberger, D. Niedermeier, S. Hartmann, T.Clauss, F. Stratmann, R. C. Sullivan, P. J. DeMott, M.D. Petters, B. Sierau, and J. Schneider (2011), Surface modification of mineral dust particles by sulphuric acid processing: Implications for as ice nucleation abilities, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 7839-7858.



Duplissy, J., et al. (2010), Results from the CERN pilot CLOUD experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10,1635-1647.

Henning, S., H. Wex, T. Hennig, A. Kiselev, J. Snider, D. Rose, U. Dusek, G. Frank, U. Pöschl, A. Kristensson, M. Bilde, R. Tillmann, A. Kiendler-Scharr, T. F. Mentel, S. Walter, J. Schneider, C. Wennrich, and F. Stratmann (2010), Soluble mass, hygroscopic growth and droplet activation during LExNo, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D11206, doi:10.1029/2009JD012626.

Kiselev, A., C. Wennrich, F. Stratmann, H. Wex, S. Henning, T. F. Mentel, A. Kiendler-Scharr, J. Schneider, S. Walter, and I. Lieberwirth (2010), Morphological characterization of soot aerosol during LExNo, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D11204, doi:10.1029/2009JD012635.

Niedermeier, D., S. Hartmann, R. A. Shaw, D. Covert, T. F. Mentel, J. Schneider, L. Poulain, P. Reitz, C. Spindler, T. Clauss, A. Kiselev, E. Hallbauer, H. Wex, K. Mildenberger, and F. Stratmann (2010), Heterogeneous freezing of droplets with immersed mineral dust particles: measurements and parameterization, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3601-3614.

Poulain, L., Z. Wu, M. D. Petters, H. Wex, E. Hallbauer, B. Wehner, A. Massling, S. M. Kreidenweis, and F. Stratmann (2010), Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and CCN activation for secondary organic aerosols Part 3: Influence of the chemical composition on the hygroscopic properties and volatile fractions of aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3775-3785.

Snider, J. R., H. Wex, D. Rose, A. Kristensson, F. Stratmann, T. Hennig, S. Henning, A. Kiselev, M. Bilde, M. Burkhardt, U. Dusek, G. Frank, A. Kiendler-Scharr, T. F. Mentel, M. D. Petters, U. Pöschl, and R. Tillmann (2010), Intercomparison of CCN and hygroscopic fraction measurements from LExNo, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D11205, doi:10.1029/2009JD012618.

Stratmann, F., M. Bilde, U. Dusek, G. Frank, T. Hennig, S. Henning, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. Kiselev, A. Kristensson, I. Lieberwirt, T. F. Mentel, U. Pöschl, D. Rose, J. Schneider, J. Snider, R. Tillmann, S. Walter, and H. Wex (2010), Examination of laboratory-generated coated soot particles: An overview over the LExNo campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D11203, doi:10.1029/2009JD012628.

Sullivan, R. C., M. D. Petters, P. J. DeMott, S. M. Kreidenweis, H. Wex, D. Niedermeier, S. Hartmann, T. Clauss, F. Stratmann, P. Reitz, J. Schneider, and B. Sierau (2010), Irreversible loss of ice nucleation active sites in mineral dust particles caused by sulphuric acid condensation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10,1147-111487.

Wex, H., G. McFiggans, S. Henning, and F. Stratmann (2010), The influence of the external mixing state of atmospheric aerosol on derived CCN number concentrations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L10805, doi:10.1029/2010GL043337.

Wex, H., E. Fuentes, G. Tsagkogeorgas, J. Voigtländer, T. Clauss, A. Kiselev, D. Green, H. Coe, G.McFiggans, and F. Stratmann (2010), The influence of algal exudate on the hygroscopicity of sea spray particles, Advances in Meteorology, vol. 2010, Article ID 365131, doi:10.1155/2010/365131 (special issue:Marine Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interaction).



Laj, P., et al. (2009), Measuring atmospheric composition change, Atmos. Environ., 43, 5351-5414.

Petters, M. D., H. Wex, C. M. Carrico, E. Hallbauer, A. Massling, G. R. McMeeking, L. Poulain, Z. Wu, S. M. Kreidenweis, and F. Stratmann (2009), Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary oganic aerosol - Part 2: Theoretical approaches, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3999-4009.

Stratmann, F., O. Möhler, R. A. Shaw, and H. Wex (2009), Laboratory cloud simulation: Capabilities and future directions, Ernst Strüngmann Forum reports, Frankfurt, Germany.

Tuch, T. M., A. Haudek, T. Müller, A. Nowak, H. Wex, and A. Wiedensohler (2009), Design and performance of an automatic regenerating adsorption aerosol dryer for continuous operation at monitoring sites, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 2, 417422.

Wex, H., M. D. Petters, C. M. Carrico, E. Hallbauer, A. Massling, G. R. McMeeking, L. Poulain, Z. Wu, S. M. Kreidenweis, and F. Stratmann (2009), Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary oganic aerosol: Part 1 - Evidence from measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3987-3997.



Niedermeier, D., F. Stratmann, H. Wex, E. Brüggemann, A. Kislev, and J. Heintzenberg (2008), LACIS-measurements and parameterization of see-salt particle hygroscopic growth and activation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 579-590.

Wex, H., F. Stratmann, D. Topping, and G. McFiggans (2008), The Kelvin versus the Raoult term in the Köhler equation, J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 4004-4016, doi:10.1175/2008JAS2720.1.

Wex, H., F. Stratmann, T. Hennig, D. Niedermeier, E. Nilsson, R. Ocskay, D. Rose, I. Salma, and M. Ziese (2008), The role of surface tension in connecting hygroscopic growth to activation for different particle types, Environ. Res. Lett., 3, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/3/035004.

Ziese, Z., H. Wex, E. Nilsson, I. Salma, R. Ocskay, T. Hennig, A. Massling, and F. Stratmann (2008), Hygroscopic growth and activation of HULIS particles: Experimental data and a new iterative parameterization scheme for complex aerosol particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1855-1866.



Voigtländer, J., F. Stratmann, D. Niedermeier, H. Wex, and A. Kiselev (2007), Mass accommodation coeffient of water: A combined computational fluid dynamics and experimental data analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D20208, doi:10.1029/2007JD008604.

Wex, H., T. Hennig, I. Salma, R. Ocskay, A. Kiselev, S. Henning, A. Massling, A. Wiedensohler, and F. Stratmann (2007), Hygroscopic growth and measured and modeled critical super-saturations of an atmospheric HULIS sample, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02818, doi:10.1029/2006GL028260.

Wex, H., M. Ziese, A. Kiselev, S. Henning, and F. Stratmann (2007), Deliquescence and hygroscopic growth of succinic acid particles measured with LACIS, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L17810, doi:10.1029/2007GL030185.



Wex, H., A. Kiselev, M. Ziese, and F. Stratmann (2006), Calibration of LACIS as a CCN detector and its use in measuring activation and hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosol particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys.,6 , 4519-4527.



Kiselev, A., H. Wex, F. Stratmann, A. Nadeev, and D. Karpushenko (2005), White-light optical particle spectrometer for in situ measurement of condensational growth of aerosol particles, Appl. Opt., 44(22),4693–4701.

Wex, H., A. Kiselev, F. Stratmann, J. Zoboki, and F. Brechtel (2005), Measured and modeled equilibrium sizes of NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 particles at relative humidities up to 99.1%, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D21212, doi:10.1029/2004JD005507.



Stratmann, F., A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt (2004), Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic super-saturation conditions, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21, 876–887.



Heintzenberg, J., T. Tuch, B. Wehner, A. Wiedensohler, H. Wex, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Wendisch, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl (2003), Arctic haze over central Europe, Tellus, 55 B, 796–807.



Bundke, U., G. Hänel, H. Horvath, W. Kaller, S. Seidl, H. Wex, A. Wiedensohler, M. Wiegner, and V. Freudenthaler (2002), Aerosol optical properties during the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (LACE 98), J. Geophys. Res., 107(D21), 8123, doi:10.1029/2000JD000188.

Ebert, M., S. Weinbruch, A. Rausch, G. Gorzawski, G. Helas, P. Hoffmann, and H. Wex (2002), The complex refractive index of aerosols during LACE 98 as derived from the analysis of individual particles, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D21), 8121, doi:10.1029/2000JD000195.

Formenti, P., T. Reiner, D. Sprung, M. O. Andreae, M. Wendisch, H. Wex, D. Kindred, K. Dewey, J. Kent, M. Tzourtziou, A. Vasaras, and C. Zerefos (2002), STAAARTE-med 1998 summer airborne measurements over the Aegean sea, 1, aerosol particles and trace gases, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D21), 4450, doi:10.1029/2001JD1337.

Formenti, P., O. Boucher, T. Reiner, D. Sprung, M. O. Andreae, M. Wendisch, H. Wex, D. Kindred, M. Tzourtziou, A. Vasaras, and C. Zerefos (2002), STAAARTE-med 1998 summer airborne measurements over the Aegean sea, 2, aerosol scattering and absorption, and radiative calculations, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D21), 4451, doi:10.1029/2001JD001336.

Neusüß, C., H. Wex, W. Birmili, A. Wiedensohler, C. Koziar, B. Busch, E. Brüggemann, T. Gnauk, M. Ebert, and D. S. Covert (2002), Characterization and parameterization of atmospheric aerosol number, mass, and chemical size distributions in central Europe, J. Geophys. Res, 107(D21), 8127,doi:10.1029/2001JD000514.

Wex, H., C. Neusüß, M. Wendisch, F. Stratmann, C. Koziar, A. Keil, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Ebert (2002), Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in-situ closure and sensitivity study, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D21), 8122, doi:10.1029/2000JD000234.



Formenti, P., M. O. Andreae, T. W. Andreae, E. Galani, A. Vasaras, C. Zerefos, V. Amiridis, L. Orlovsky, A. Karnieli, M. Wendisch, H. Wex, B. N. Holben, M. W., and J. Lelieveld (2001), Aerosol optical properties and large-scale transport of air masses: observations at a coastal and a semiarid site in the eastern mediterranean during summer 1998, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D9), 9807–9826, doi:10.1029/2000JD900609.



Neusüß, C., D. Weise, W. Birmili, H. Wex, A. Wiedensohler, and D. Covert (2000), Size-segregated,chemical, gravimetric and number distribution-derived mass closure of the aerosol in Sagres, Portugal during ACE -2, Tellus, 52B, 169–184.



Current projects:

  • DACAPO-PESO (based on AüP)
  • HiLDA (based on AüP)
  • (AC)3
  • MarParCloud
  • PI-ICE


Completed projects   

  • Realization of MINT (Melpitz INTensive), an IfT intern measurement campaign within the scope of the PhD thesis [1997]
  • Participation in LACE 98 (Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment) [1998]
  • Organization and participation in LExNo (LACIS Experiment in November) [2005]
  • Organization and participation in a project with Colorado State University examining SOA (Secondary Organic Aerosol) [2007]
  • Participation in FROST 1 (Activation and Freezing of coated and uncoated Dust Particles) [2008]
  • Organization and participation of measurements in colaboration with the University of California, Santa Cruz, comparing optical particle detectors [2008]
  • Member of the organizing committee of the IfT Klausurtagung - lead during the final discussion [2008]
  • Organization and leading scientist for FROST 2 [2009]
  • Organization of the first IfT internal workshop - topic: SOA [2009]
  • Organization and leading scientist for a cooperation with University of Manchester examining algea-exudates [2009]
  • Organization and participation of the "First IfT summer-school on atmospheric aerosol and clouds" [2009]
  • Participation and organization of CARRIBA (Clouds, Aerosol, Radiation, and tuRbulence in the Trade Wind regime over Barbados) [2010]
  • Organization of a cooperation with Technical University of Vienna examining ice nuclei abilities of particles from pollen-washing-water [2011]
  • Organization of a cooperation with Colorado State University examining ice nuclei abilities of kaolinite [2011]
  • Organization of the 16th ICCP (International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation) as chair of the local organizing committee [2012]
  • contribution to AEROCLOUD [2013-2016]
  • INUIT (Ice Nuclei Research Unit) [2012-2018]
  • Contribution to (AC)3 and sub-projects (e.g., PamArcMip) [since 2017]
  • Project-PI of a sub-project of MarParCloud [2017-2022]
  • Contribution to PI-ICE [since 2019]


Curriculum vitae:

Academic qualification  


1988-1996 Study of Physics at the University of Giessen

1992-1993 Exchange Student at Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA (Fulbright-stipend)

1994-1996 Diploma Student at the Institute for applied Physics (IAP), Giessen

1995 Research internship at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (ISSP), Sofia, Bulgaria

1995-1996 Realization of a feasibility study on the use of semiconductor gassensors in the detection of petrol and diesel contamination in soil

1996 Diploma Thesis: "Charakterisierung von Oxidations-Katalysatorenf ̈ur die selektive Gassensorik"


Research Experience


1996-2002 PhD Student at the Institute for Tropospheric Research (IfT), Leipzig

2001 PhD Thesis: "Closure and Sensitivity Studies on Physical Parameters of Rural Continental Aerosols"

since 2002: Scientist at the IfT, engaged in the development and buildup of and in experiments at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator LACIS